bombardments on several villages in the East and a Russian army which fortifies its positions in the South

Ukrainian cereals: a vital agreement for global food security

An agreement between Ukraine and Russia on the export of Ukrainian cereals was signed on July 22 under the aegis of the UN and Turkey.

Why this agreement is important:

Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, Moscow imposed a blockade of major Ukrainian ports. About 20 million tonnes of grain have been blocked in Ukrainian ports for several months, driving up basic food prices around the world.

Before the war, up to 90% of Ukrainian wheat, corn and sunflowers were transported by sea, mainly from the port of Odessa. And many developing countries like Egypt, Lebanon and Tunisia are heavily dependent on kyiv for their grain supply.

What this agreement allows:

The agreement provides for a secure maritime corridor in the Black Sea for the transport of grain from three Ukrainian ports: the port of Odessa, that of Chornomorsk and the port of Pivdenny, in Yuzhne (30 kilometers east of Odessa ). According to UN figures, in the 1er November, 9.7 million tonnes of cereals and other agricultural products passed through this route. Valid for a period of one hundred and twenty days, the agreement has a deadline of November 19, but it will normally be automatically renewed, according to the terms concluded in July.

How it materializes:

The agreement establishes a buffer zone of 10 nautical miles around each vessel traveling through the secure corridor. No boats, equipment or military drones are allowed within this perimeter. Another zone has been established in Turkish waters for ships arriving from Ukraine to be inspected before they can continue their journey. The Joint Coordination Center, responsible for supervising the agreement, was also created for this purpose in Turkey. It is made up of four teams of eight inspectors – two Russians, two Ukrainians, two Turks and two UN representatives. Their role is, among other things, to ensure that no weapons are carried on the ships.

Resuming after a brief suspension:

On October 29, Russia announced the suspension of its participation in the agreement, accusing Ukraine of having attacked its fleet with drones in the Bay of Sevastopol, in Crimea, an annexed territory. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced the resumption of Ukrainian grain exports on Wednesday, with Moscow saying it had received written guarantees “sufficient” from Kyiv to re-engage in the deal.

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